Robles Denton (Grady58Larsen)

Menang Roulette against Apache attacks was to congregate in the newly formed Spanish missions. San Antonio, in reality, was founded mostly as a cluster of missions with a presidio serving the modest Coahuiltecan, Jumano, and other bands who required protection from the Apaches. According to the treaty, the land could not be sold or alienated to any entity but the Republic of Texas, Indians could have their own laws as extended as they had been not contrary to Texas law, and the republic would regulate all Indian trade. This very first treaty of the Republic of Texas was in no way ratified by either the provisional government or the Texas Senate. Later, the Texas government realized that no Indians had been granted land titles by the Mexican government, and utilized this as justification for expelling most of them from Texas. One group, the Tonkawas, formed an alliance with them that lasted much more than a century, in the course of which each groups dwindled. The Tonkawas have been another little group shoved out of the South Plains buffalo range by the Comanches. Although originally identified to the Spanish as 4 distinct bands, the Tonkawas unified in the mid-1700s as a response to epidemics and war losses. They were despised by other Indians not just for their raiding and competitors for hunting grounds but also due to the fact they had a reputation for cannibalism. The Lipans also allied briefly in the 1780s with groups of East Texas Indians, mostly to establish a supply for guns and ammunition other than San Antonio. They produced contacts with the tiny Atakapa bands on the decrease Trinity River, who had been provided two meager Spanish missions in an try to block French expansion. Such trade continued for 4 years, and the Caddos, though friendly to the Spanish, were oblivious to Spanish warnings to end it. By the end of the decade, the Caddos were forced to abandon the trade with the Lipans, as the Spanish again turned all the other tribes (such as the Tonkawas, briefly) against the Lipans. A comparable fate befell the Coahuiltecan Indians, who lived in tiny bands amongst the San Antonio River and the Rio Grande and along the Balcones Escarpment. The committee created a few errors in its evaluation of Texas Indians, as indicated by its description of the Tonkawas and Lipans, but it did trace the Caddo-Wichita-Comanche connection and the Comanches' raiding activities against Mexicans. It also identified and situated most of the bands that had migrated from the United States and tried to establish their length of residency in relation to the arrival of Anglo-Americans. The Shawnees, on the other hand, were classed as "emigrants" for possessing moved to Texas at roughly the same time as Austin. In reality, the "native-emigrant" division was fluid and inconsistent, and it meant reasonably small in terms of the republic's policies and actions. In an work to sustain excellent relations with the Indians, the provisional government declared in November 1835 that the East Texas bands had just claims to their land and that definite boundaries must be drawn for them. The Coushattas, Alabamas, Biloxis, and Creeks have been identified as living near Nacogdoches and resident in Texas for fifty years. The "Prairie Indians" were described as hunters and horsemen living higher up the Brazos and Trinity rivers and friendly with the Comanches. Other groups have been identified as existing residents of Texas but not the government's duty. The "Northern Indians" (Kickapoos, Shawnees, Delawares, and Potawatomis) had migrated a decade earlier from the United States and consequently have been deemed that nation's duty. The Lipans and Tonkawas, on the other hand, have been regarded by the committee to be element of the Mexican nation, even although the Tonkawas' tenure in Texas predated the Europeans' and the Lipans had arrived a century and a half prior to T